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currency: Nuevo sol (PEN)
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Peru profile
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia;
a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Peru history
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous Quechuan ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceeding administrations.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: Republica del Peru
Local short form: Peru
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Peru's capital city is Lima
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Peru Constitution:

29 December 1993
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Peru population growth rate: 1.02%
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Peru highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
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Peru lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
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About 3% of Peru's land is arable.
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Ucayali River is the Longest River in Peru
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Peru birth rate is 19 births/1,000 population
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Peru infant mortality rate is 22 deaths/1,000 live births
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Peru fertility rate is 2.25 children born/woman
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Peru climate:
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
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Top 10 cities of Peru with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Lima: 7,605,742
2. Arequipa: 1,834,078
3. Trujillo, Peru: 1,216,535
4. Chiclayo: 917,024
5. Piura: 772,918
6. Iquitos: 555,035
7. Cusco: 484,112
8. Huancayo: 464,744
9. Chimbote: 425,556
10. Pucallpa: 306,661
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Peru ethnic groups:

Amerindian - 45%
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) - 37%
white - 15%
black, Japanese, Chinese, and other - 3%
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Peru Exports:

copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
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Peru Imports:

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
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unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
25 regions (regiones, singular - region).
1. Amazonas
2. Ancash
3. Apurimac
4. Arequipa
5. Ayacucho
6. Cajamarca
7. Callao
8. Cusco
9. Huancavelica
10. Huanuco
11. Ica
12. Junin
13. La Libertad
14. Lambayeque
15. Lima
16. Loreto
17. Madre de Dios
18. Moquegua
19. Pasco
20. Piura
21. Puno
22. San Martin
23. Tacna
24. Tumbes
25. Ucayali
and 1 province (provincia): Lima
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) (a coalition of the Alliance for Progress, Humanist Party, National Restoration Party, and Popular Christian Party) - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI
Fuerza 2011 - Keiko FUJIMORI
Gana Peru (a coalition of Lima Para Todos, Peruvian Communist Party, Peruvian Nationalist Party, and Peruvian Socialist Party) - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) (SN) (a coalition of Cambio 90, Siempre Unidos, Todos por el Peru, and Union for Peru (UPP)) - Luis CASTANEDA Lossio
Peru Posible (PP) (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) (PAP) - Alan GARCIA Perez (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA))